Forming and building teams

Forming and building teams

Main criteria for a successful team: The reliability of the company is manifested in critical situations – growing losses, bankruptcy, and more. In such cases, the professional qualities, the managerial skills, as well as the unity of the team are of great importance.

The main structural unit of the organizations of the future are the teams and this determines the need for the development of conceptually new management approaches for designing effective human interaction.

The formation of teams is an important condition in the process of organizational change and the first step to getting out of the “web” of their dimensions.

Modern organizations claim to apply a team approach to work, but few have a clear idea of ​​how this is done in practice.

It is necessary to specify the characteristics of the effective team, which is a prerequisite for generating a core of knowledge and skills through which it is possible for a non-coordinated group of individuals to be purposefully transformed into a highly perfect team.

The critical moment in the effectiveness of the team is its ability to achieve useful results. Roles must be balanced, relationships built, goals set; methods of work must be specified, adequate organization and a sense of common belonging must be developed. The immediate result is an energetic and fruitful climate in the team.

An effective team must be built methodically and consciously. Of course, this cannot happen without the active participation of senior management.

In theory and social practice, there are different criteria for evaluating the effectiveness of teams.

Based on Woodcock and Francis’ research over the past thirty years, it has been concluded that effective teams are those who have gone through the process of formal or informal construction and who have dealt with eleven key aspects of functioning and performance.

If one of these criteria is missing or underdeveloped, the team is not able to realize its full potential. In summary, the eleven building blocks of team effectiveness are:

  • Balanced roles;
  • Clear goals and agreed results;
  • Openness and confrontation;
  • Cooperation and conflicts;
  • Support and trust;
  • Clear procedures;
  • Adequate leadership style;
  • Periodic analyzes;
  • Individual development;
  • Working relationships between the teams in the organization;
  • Good communications.

Given the limited volume, we do not dwell on them in more detail.
It is characteristic of the team that it is created to achieve or achieve a goal.

The team structure is slow and difficult to build, but once created, it can be the most accurate indicator of the true capabilities of the organization. Through the team structure, it is possible to constantly dynamize, improve, and hence evolve the organization.

The preconditions for such a statement are the following: the organization is a system that is composed of different divisions, usually has numerous structural branches and large-scale organization.

On the other hand, the modern organization has different missions. Therefore, the team structure ensures the efficient performance of tasks. Teams have the benefits and risks of any administrative system:

Advantages and benefits:

Unity of goals and values;
Possibility for continuity without a period of chaos and losses;
Consistency and systematicity of activities;
Clarity, predictability, and stability of governance;
Opportunity for planned changes and impacts.

Disadvantages and risks:

From bureaucratization and over-administration;
Stiffness and conservatism;
The propensity for conformism – the new is suspicious;
Unkindness to individual style and originality.

Therefore, the administrative bureaucracy and standardization in forming a successful team must be moderate and flexible – “wide enough” to help create and “free” enough not to hinder change, but at the same time – strict to violations. In this sense, the developed team management function includes the following systems:

To plan staffing needs;
For performance appraisal and attestation;
For certification and standardization;
For communications;
For information and administrative services, etc.

Preparation for team building

What are the main forms of manifestation of team structure training in the business system? No matter how diverse and specifically conditioned they may be, they can be summarized:

  • – to form a unified conceptual apparatus, characterizing the main company operations;
  • – to assist in the correct perception of this device by the company’s partners;
  • – to present the goals for forming the team;
  • – to analyze staffing needs.

In this sense, the preparation can be summarized in the following areas:
In internal company communications, which include contacts and connections in the company structure itself.

Most often these are the conducted official conversations, the briefings, the meetings, the meetings, the operatives, the work between the units, and others.

The reports, orders, written orders, notes, etc., concerning the internal organizational structure and the internal organizational problems, also belong to the internal company communications, as they are a kind of preparation for forming a team. Reference: “The teams in the modern management”, https://projectmanagers.joomla.com/15-the-teams-in-the-modern-management.html

External company communications affect the work with companies and organizations, people and a group of people outside the specific unit, and then create connections to attract other associates or to form new teams.
Contacts with intermediary clients and the general public represent a large part of the perimeter, which covers the external company relations. In this sense, the team structure acts again in clarifying many processes, in interaction with contractors and others.

Another preparation for forming a team is informal.

Some authors note that rituals are applied in modern organizations to remind their members of the importance of team values ​​and to promote the perception of these values.

The rituals typical for joining the team include the training moment (an acquaintance of new appointees with the history and traditions of the company, with its main values, with the most important in the company management).

Highlighting rituals most often aim to further emphasize the importance of one or another event in the life of the team and its members – through gala dinners, special award ceremonies and awards, and more.

Integrating rituals are aimed at achieving even greater teamwork; better knowledge and more complete building of team spirit.

Rituals and ceremonies in the business environment are real metaphors of entrepreneurship, which act corporately – bring together members of a team community, reveal new and unknown aspects of the history and present of the team, involve those present in the core values ​​, and traditions.

What are the main forms of manifestation of team structure training in the business system? No matter how diverse and specifically conditioned they may be, they can be summarized:

  • To form a unified conceptual apparatus, characterizing the main company operations;
  • To assist in the correct perception of this device by the company’s partners;
  • To present the goals for forming the team;
  • Analyze staffing needs.

In this sense, the preparation can be summarized in the following areas:
In internal company communications, which include contacts and connections in the company structure itself.

Most often these are the conducted official conversations, the briefings, the meetings, the meetings, the operatives, the work between the units, and others.

The reports, orders, written orders, notes, etc., concerning the internal organizational structure and the internal organizational problems, also belong to the internal company communications, as they are a kind of preparation for forming a team.

External company communications affect the work with companies and organizations, people and a group of people outside the specific unit, and then create connections to attract other associates or to form new teams.

Contacts with intermediary clients and the general public represent a large part of the perimeter, which covers the external company relations. In this sense, the team structure acts again in clarifying many processes, in interaction with contractors and others.

Team building models

There are different types of team structures:

A type of pyramid in which there is a strong avoidance of uncertainty and a large distance of power, as it is typical for strongly power organizations.

A type of machine in which there is considerable uncertainty and a small distance of power, as it is typical for the team and cohesive organizations;

Type of family, with a slight avoidance of insecurity and a significant distance of power, where there is a strong hierarchy;
Market type, also with a weak avoidance of uncertainty and a relatively weak power distance.

The motivation of teams in the company

To talk about motivation, we should clarify the very concept – What is motivation?

There are several points of view on motivation, depending on the subject and object studied by the various disciplines in this category.

Strictly psychological sciences believe that the origin of the word comes from the Greek ‘motivun’ – the reason why something moves, while the social sciences accept the Latin origin ‘more meaning ‘move’, ‘move’.
In general, motivation is a set of forces that make a person act in a certain way.

It is Motivation that is the constructive force that mobilizes the unsuspected possibilities of each of us. Motivation usually stems from some need that is not being met. Reference: https://bvop.org/learn/motivationmanagement/

We do something because we need it, we strive to achieve some results, we have certain desires, inner positions, goals, and values ​​that make us choose this behavior. This is the mechanism of motivation. Motivation has a total of three dimensions:

The goals and reasons why people make their choice of behavior;
The thought process based on which they form behavior;
A social process by which one changes the behavior of another.

Motivation is an eternal process. Due to one or another factor, people are constantly doing something, but it is not always useful for the organization.

To answer the questions: what motivates, what guides and how human behavior can be maintained, it is necessary to look at the process of motivation.

Motivation arises from a state of imbalance, from the presence of need, desire, expectation. The next stage is the decision, action, and formation of certain behavior.

Then comes the moment when the set goals are realized or not. This leads to the fourth stage, which is a modification of the internal state, which in turn is followed by the first stage.

Motivation is a constructive force, but its mismanagement can lead to apathy and resistance. And the decisions in the organization are realized only if the people we work with perceive their delegated tasks and responsibilities as their own.

The prosperity of an organization depends in direct proportion on the level of motivation of the staff. Reference: “Team work and problems in the management of organizations”, https://projectmanagers.edublogs.org/2021/07/23/team-work-and-problems-in-the-management-of-organizations/

Proof of this thesis is the many theories that we can generally put in two groups depending on whether they relate specifically to the psychological characteristics of a man or the relationship personality environment is leading.

To the first group, we can include Maslow’s theory; Alderfer; of Herzberg; achievement theory. The second group includes the theory of justice, the theory of expectation, motivation through goals.

Maslow’s theory of the hierarchy of needs was the first coherent theory of motivation. The basic needs are grouped into 5 groups in ascending order: physiological, security, social (commitment), respect, self-realization.

Each higher need arises after the satisfaction of the previous one. Interestingly, while the first 4 types of needs have a saturation threshold, the need for realization is limitless. Also, people are at different levels of needs both in space and time.

Alderfer believes that several needs can arise at the same time as a process of going back. It divides needs into three categories: existence, commitment, growth. The road to meeting the needs is in the above order, but it is full of barriers.

Overcoming them depends on the will and capabilities of the individual. The four components of motivation are satisfaction (achievement), progress (transition to a higher need), frustration (overcoming barriers along the way), and regress (giving up the need and returning to the starting state).

For example, an employee whose attempts to satisfy his need for professional growth are unsuccessful goes back and has as his main motive the need to communicate with his colleagues.

The theory of justice

The theory of justice has many manifestations at various levels. People want to treat them with dignity. Employees compare themselves with their colleagues outside and inside the organization and know that their managers make a similar comparison.

As a conclusion from such a comparison, the employee can assume that he invests much more effort, knowledge, and talent in the work than what he receives from it – satisfaction, remuneration, and other benefits.

Receiving a sense of injustice, he reacts by changing the amount of energy invested in the work as well as by distorting the real results. The more workers think they are being paid unfairly, the more they will reduce their efforts and be absent from work.

The theory of expectations

According to the theory of expectations, people are motivated in terms of getting a certain result mainly according to their expectations.

The type of expectation depends on each person’s feelings and knowledge of others. Whether and how it will work in a company depends on the answer to the question “what will I achieve with my engagement?”

The expectation is formed in 2 stages. The first stage – “what efforts should I make to achieve a result of…”, second stage – “what assessment will others give to my results”.

Knowledge of team members

After taking into account the nature of motivation and demotivation and by studying in more depth the motivational theories, one concludes that to motivate one must know well the specific personalities.

It is also necessary to know the factors influencing the motivational process – organizational structure, the climate in the enterprise, requirements for work. For this purpose, some of the most general requirements can be followed:

Before moving on to direct tactics of motivation, it is necessary to determine: the desired behavior of staff, the system of staff remuneration and social benefits (monetary incentives), all other types of remuneration and non-monetary incentives, career opportunities, social contacts, and communication, conditions of labor, etc., both in the present and in the future.

For this purpose, the rules of internal organization can be used, as well as other written materials available not only to managers. (Herzberg’s theory, motivation for achievement, theory of justice, theory of expectation, motivation through goals).

Conducting a mandatory interview with the admission of each new employee

The aim is to understand what level of needs they intend to satisfy by giving their work, what are their goals in life, what other interests outside of work they have. With the help of the interview, you can determine which motivational theory is most suitable for a certain type of collaborator.

Very appropriate, especially for the theory of expectation, is the question: “What do you think is expected of you in terms of results?” (The interview is a necessary prerequisite for all theories).

Getting to know the work in detail

It is very important to define the personal goals and responsibilities of subordinates so that they know what to strive for. Employees need to be aware of how their efforts affect overall work. (motivation through goals, theory of expectations)

Monitoring the work and providing feedback

This includes verbal acknowledgments, gratitude, and personalizing pride in accomplishing the task. In this way, employees are reassured that they are on the right track and that they are valued.

If someone makes deviations, it is necessary to explain the mistakes in time and help him to correct them. If this does not lead to the desired results, he should be held administratively liable.

The issue of penalties is very delicate because it can demotivate the offender if the penalty is imposed too high, but also not seeking responsibility for a clear violation would demotivate the rest of the staff (see a theory of justice). In this way, employees will be able to learn a targeted behavior.

Update and improve the company climate

This includes constant monitoring of the behavior and changes in the expectations of employees. There is no perfect system, and sometimes the reason is not only in the subordinates.

It will be very appropriate to take the opinion of the staff during a certain period with the help of special surveys or questionnaires. Organizational barriers need to be removed for resources to be provided and easily accessible. (motivational potential).

Conclusion

Due to poor economic, social and cultural conditions in many countries, work motivation is very low. This is mainly due to the low pay of employees and workers, who by the logic of the theory of justice and the theory of expectations are looking for all sorts of ways to reduce the work they do.

The many problems of the external environment do not allow managers to build an effective control system and monitor their staff well enough. Failure to punish socially harmful acts leads to demotivation for quality work in society as a whole (theory of justice).

The implementation of regulations and other regulations is ubiquitous and this trend will continue until simple copying (low-level example) and high-level corruption (high-level example) are sanctioned while scholarships are revoked. for excellent students and able-bodied, but inconvenient for private interests, employees are fired, and the real incomes of those who remain competent are constantly falling.

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